What kind of a threading cycle is your CAM going to produce? Lathes commonly use G76 threading cycles, which are kind of a shorthand code that invokes a macro that causes the machine to execute all the moves necessary to finish the thread.
The long hand way would be G33 single pass threading, where every movement is written out in full by your CAM program.
In either situation, you generally will need to tell the program what the finish depth of the thread is. I don't have ME consultant handy, but I believe it should have some factor similar to the minor thread diameter or full depth of thread, which would be a starting point for a thread depth figure.
The lead of the thread is how far along the axis the tool must move while the thread makes 1 revolution on the part. 10 threads per inch (aka TPI or 10 pitch) = 0.100 lead, or 0.100 pitch.
It is possible for some types of parts to have multiple parallel threads, commonly called 2 start (or 3 start or more) threads, because the designer wants the nut to travel fast on the part, but does not want to cut a huge, deep coarse thread to accomplish this. If you look at such a part, you might count 10 threads in one inch, but because it is a two start thread, the lead is 0.200", and the nut will wind on 1" of length with only 5 turns. The pitch of a multistart thread generally ignores the lead, and just counts how many threads per inch. So a two start, 10 pitch thread can be computed to have a 0.200 lead. Clear? If you know the lead, that is what is really important for the thread cycle.
Metric thread pitches are always based on the lead of the thread. Your 45mm example, you did not state the pitch of the thread. Nonetheless, for a given pitch, the incremental depth (depth from the Outside Diameter) of the thread is always the same regardless of the diameter of the part, so you can figure out the correct cutting depth from other thread examples within the range of the chart you are looking at. This is known as interpolating or extrapolating the chart.
I'm not certain about your 16ER insert designation. Is that a thread tool or a triangular turning insert?
As for the incremental step down for depth of cut, that is a matter of judgement. Most machinists thread with multiple passes which decrease in incremental depth because the cutting load gets higher as the tool gets deeper. What this stepdown amount should start at depends on the thread pitch and how sturdy your tool and machine and setup are.
An added wrinkle, if your machine is set to work in inches, then you'll need to convert your metric thread pitch into either TPI or the actual pitch in inches per turn, when you input your thread cycle data into your CAM. I don't run Dophin, so if you post more specifics of the actual thread you will be cutting, the next guy may be able to help you with more specific instructions.